Meditations on the Foul in Thai Manuscript Art

Jana Igunma


Meditation is an essential part of Buddhism. Texts on meditation form a small but important fraction of canonical as well as post-canonical literature. Meditation aims to develop mental discipline and to cultivate a wholesome, awake state of mind which eventually expands to practice of the Dhamma. It is regarded as a world-renouncing activity and, sometimes combined with chanting and visualization methods, helps to reach a mental state of happiness or delight (p􀆰ti) that is one of the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (satta bojjhaṅg􀆘), which apart from happiness include mindfulness, investigation, effort, tranquility, concentration, and equanimity.

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